EDUCATION

Wednesday, December 21, 2011

Sheikh Hasina



Sheikh Hasina
শেখ হাসিনা
Prime Minister of Bangladesh
Incumbent
Assumed office
6 January 2009
President Iajuddin Ahmed
Zillur Rahman
Preceded by Fakhruddin Ahmed (Acting)
In office
23 June 1996 – 15 July 2001
Preceded by Muhammad Habibur Rahman (Acting)
Succeeded by Latifur Rahman (Acting)
Personal details
Born 28 September 1947 (age 64)
Tungipara, East Bengal
(now Bangladesh)
Political party Awami League
Grand Alliance (2008–present)
Spouse(s) Wazed Miah (1968–2009)
Children Sajeeb
Saima
Alma mater Eden Girls' College, Bangladesh
Religion Islam
Sheikh Hasina (Bengali: শেখ হাসিনা Shekh Hasina) (born September 28, 1947) is a Bangladeshi politician and current Prime Minister of Bangladesh.[1] She has been the President of the Awami League, a major political party, since 1981. She is the eldest of five children of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the founding father (and first president) of Bangladesh and widow of a reputed nuclear scientist, M. A. Wazed Miah. Sheikh Hasina's party defeated the BNP-led Four-Party Alliance in the 2008 parliamentary elections, thus assuring her of the post of prime minister. Sheikh Hasina has once before held the office, from 1996 to 2001.

 Early life

Sheikh Hasina's political career started as a student activist in Eden College in the 1960s. While at College, she was elected vice president of the College Students Union for the term 1966–67. Her opponent was the leftist student leader Matia Chowdhary, who much later joined Awami League and became a member of Hasina's cabinet.
During the liberation war in 1971, Hasina, then a young mother, was held under house arrest with her mother, brothers, sister and her son. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was imprisoned in West Pakistan during this period. After liberation, Hasina's involvement in politics was minimal as Sheikh Kamal, her brother, was touted as Mujib's successor.

 Member of the National Assembly

In the night of August 15, 1975, her father and almost her entire family, including her mother and three brothers, was assassinated in a coup d'état by a section of disgruntled officers of the Bangladesh Army, some of whom were freedom fighters during 1971.[2] Sheikh Hasina and her sister, Sheikh Rehana were on a goodwill tour of West Germany at that time. Hasina then sought refuge in United Kingdom and later, in India. She lived in exile in New Delhi, India, until May 17, 1981, when she was allowed to return to Bangladesh.

 Movement against autocracy

While living in self-exile in India, Sheikh Hasina was elected President of Bangladesh Awami League in 1981. After she returned to the country, President Ziaur Rahman was assassinated in yet another coup in May, 1981. The following year, General Hossain Mohammad Ershad captured power through a bloodless coup and declared martial law. In 1983, Hasina formed the 15-party alliance to launch a movement to oust him from power. She was in and out of detention throughout the 1980s. Her party, along with the Bangladesh Nationalist Party, led by Ziaur Rahman's widow Khaleda Zia, was instrumental in the movement against the military rule. In 1984, Hasina was put under house arrest in February and then again in November. In March 1985, she was put under house arrest for three months.
In 1990, Hasina's 8-party alliance was instrumental along with another BNP-led alliance in finally removing the Ershad regime.

 Leader of the opposition

Sheikh Hasina and her party Awami League participated in the 1986 Parliamentary elections held under President Lieutenant-General Hossain Mohammad Ershad. She served as the leader of the opposition in 1986–1987. Hasina's decision to take part in the election has been criticized by her opponents, since the election was held under dictatorial rule. Her supporters maintain that she used the platform effectively to challenge Ershad's rule. The parliament was dissolved in December 1987. Being the leader of the opposition Sheikh Hasina always pushed the govt. to render accountability and transparency in all spehere of life cricizing the activities of the cabinet.

 Prime minister

The Awami League won 146 seats in the 1996 parliamentary elections. The support of the Jatiya Party and a few independent candidates were enough for the 150+ seats needed for the required majority. Hasina took the oath as Prime minister of Bangladesh. She vowed to create a Government of National Unity. Though some smaller parties and a few individuals from BNP did join the government, the distance between the main two political parties (as well as their leaders) remained as large as ever. Hasina did manage to convince Justice Shahabuddin Ahmed, who led the first caretaker government, to assume the post of President. This selection of an unbiased person as president was praised by her supporters as a proof of Hasina's goodwill to reach out to the opposition.
A major achievement of the new government was to strike a treaty between India and Bangladesh concerning the Farakka Barrage, a bone of contention between the two countries ever since it was built in the 1960s. According to the treaty, Bangladesh was to receive 33 thousand cubic feet per second (930 m³/s) of water. Hasina next went on to create a 'Peace Treaty' with the tribal rebels in the mountainous southeast of the country, thus seemingly solving a problem as old as Bangladesh itself. Though rebel activities have reduced greatly after the treaty, the region remains a hotbed of tension.
On the down side, the Awami League was criticized for harbouring gangsters turned politicians, most notably Jainal Hazari of Feni. Her government was also criticized for overusing Sheikh Mujibur Rahman—the country's founding leader and also father to Sheikh Hasina—in the media and naming many major public institutions and constructions after him. The Awami League maintained that previous governments had tried to systematically eradicate Sheikh Mujib's legacy from the country and that the honour he was getting was long overdue. The BNP also accused the Awami League of politicising the administration and state-owned media. Her party was also accused of being lenient towards India, especially after a shootout between border forces of India and Bangladesh left 16 Indian and 3 Bangladeshi border guards dead.


[edit] Landslide defeat (Election 2001)

The Awami League succumbed to a landslide defeat in the 2001 Parliament elections. It won only 62 seats in the Parliament, while the 'Four Party Alliance' led by the Bangladesh Nationalist Party won 234 seats, giving them a two-thirds majority in Parliament. Hasina herself was defeated in a constituency in Rangpur, which happened to contain her husband's hometown, but won in two other seats. Sheikh Hasina and the Awami League rejected the results, claiming that the election was rigged with the help of the President and the Caretaker government. However, the international community was largely satisfied with the elections and the 'Four Party Alliance' went on to form the government.

 Extortion allegations and criminal charges

On April 9, 2007, it was announced that Bangladesh police were investigating extortion charges against Hasina. She was accused of forcing Bangladeshi businessman Tajul Islam Farooq to pay bribes before his company could build a power plant in 1998. Farooq said that he paid Hasina 30 million takas (US$441,000, or €383,211) to get his project approved by the government, according to a police official.[4]
On April 11, murder charges were filed against her by the police, alleging that she masterminded the killing of four supporters of a rival political party in October 2006. The four alleged victims were beaten to death during clashes between the Awami League and rival party activists. Deputy police commissioner, Shahidul Haq Bhuiyan said "detective branch police submitted the charge-sheet of the case to a Dhaka court today after carrying out investigations and taking evidence."[5] She was visiting the United States at the time.[6]
The interim administration subsequently took steps to prevent Hasina's return to Bangladesh, with The New Nation newspaper reporting on April 17 that airlines had been asked not to allow her to return to Dhaka. She had been planning to return on April 23.[7] On April 18, the government barred Hasina from her planned return, saying that she had made provocative statements and that her return could cause disorder. This was described as a temporary measure.[8] Hasina vowed to return home anyway, and on April 22, a warrant was issued by a Bangladeshi court for her arrest.[9][10] On the same day, Hasina attempted to board a flight back to Bangladesh in London but was not allowed on the flight.[11] Labelling the case against her as "totally false and fake", Hasina said that she wanted to defend herself against the charges in court. On April 23, the arrest warrant was suspended,[12] and on April 25 the ban on Hasina's entry into the country was dropped.[13]
With her rival Khaleda Zia being pressured to go into exile at the same time, the government's actions against Hasina appeared to be an attempt to restructure the political system rather than an attempt to support her rival.
After spending 51 days in the United States and the UK, at 4:45 p.m. on 7 May 2007 Sheikh Hasina arrived at Airport in Dhaka, where she was greeted by a jubilant crowd of several thousands. At the airport Hasina told reporters that it was a mistake for the government to stop her from returning and that she hoped it would not make a bigger mistake", while acknowledging that its reversal was a positive gesture.[14]


Landslide victory (Election 2008)

On November 6, 2008, Hasina returned to Bangladesh after having inter-relation with M U Ahmed to lead her party in general elections scheduled for December 29, 2008.[29] On December 11, 2008 Sheikh Hasina announced her party's election manifesto during a news conference. In her election manifesto she vowed to build a "Digital Bangladesh" by 2021.[30] Sheikh Hasina's Awami league won the elections on 29 December 2008 with an overwhelming majority for M U Ahmed.[31]
Sheikh Hasina's party defeated Begum Khaleda Zia's BNP in the 2008 Parliamentary Elections. Her party achieved a landslide victory reminiscent of the 1971 elections of Pakistan. Under her leadership, the party has achieved a supermajority in parliament, controlling 230 seats out of 299. She was sworn into office as the Prime Minister for the second time on 6 January 2009. The Prime Minister is the most powerful executive position in Bangladesh, although technically of lower seniority compared to the office of President. Begum Zia, however, rejected the results of the election, sarcastically thanking the Chief Election Commissioner "for stage-managing the parliamentary election" in a statement. But, according to the views expressed by foreign and local election observers, the general elections were free, fair and credible.[32] After her election, members of the Jatiyo Sangsad (National Parliament) exclaimed that the Prime Minister should be awarded a Nobel Peace Prize for her career wide efforts. Lawmaker Zunaid Ahmed Palak said:
Sheikh Hasina's government accorded the historic CHT peace treaty. Many other countries followed it to establish peace in their states. We are now waiting for the Nobel Peace Prize for Sheikh Hasina

 Personal life

Sheikh Hasina married Dr. M. A. Wazed Mia , in 1968. He Dr. M. A. Wazed Mia died on 9 May 2009[33] She has two children—Sajeeb Wazed Joy (son), and Saima Wazed Hossain Putul (daughter). Joy lives in the United States with his family, and Putul lives in Canada with her husband Khandkar M Hossain.[34]
Prime Minister Hasina is a member of the Council of Women World Leaders, an International network of current and former women presidents and prime ministers, whose mission is to mobilize women leaders globally for collective action on issues of critical importance to women's development.

 Books

  • Who is the father of my son  1972
  • ওরা টোকাই কেন? 1987
  • বাংলাদেশে স্বৈরতন্ত্রের জন্ম 1993
  • দারিদ্র বিমোচন, কিছু ভাবনা 1993
  • আমার স্বপ্ন, আমার সংগ্রাম ] 1996
  • People and democracy,] 1997
  • আমরা জনগণের কথা বলতে এসেছি1998
  • বৃহৎ জনগোষ্ঠীর জন্য উন্নয়ন  1999
  • Development of the masses 1999
  • সামরিক তন্ত্র বনাম গণতন্ত্র 1999
  • আন্তর্জাতিক সম্পর্ক উন্নয়ন  2001
  • বিপন্ন গণতন্ত্র, লাঞ্ছিত মানবতা  2002
  • Democracy in distress, demeaned humanity, 2003
  • সহেনা মানবতার অবমাননা  21 February 2003
  • Living with tears,

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